LingSync Glosses

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being updated constantly, stay tuned

[edit] General Guidelines

Gloss everything--no defaults!

  • This is mainly to make search easier and more intuitive. If we had, for instance, “animate” as the understood default person and only glossed inanimate morphology as such, it would be very difficult to get a datalist of all animate words. Having no default glossing means that all our glosses will be very explicit and therefore easy to search.
  • This will be painful at the start, but once we have enough data in there, LingSync will autogloss and make our lives much easier! Hang in there.
  • If you have an affix that affects the category of the word to which it attaches, mark the original word's category as well as that of the affix. (ie: plamu 'salmon.AN' and plamu-ei 'salmon.AN-of.IN')
    • However, if you have an affix that reflects the category of the original word, do not redundantly mark both for the same animacy. (ie: plamu 'salmon.AN' and plamu-g 'salmon-AN.PL')

When in doubt, don’t parse it out!

  • Try to avoid making null morphemes unless there's very, very strong evidence for them. Pass it by someone else's eyes first, too!

In general, try to be faithful to the surface form when drawing morpheme boundaries. (ie match the morpheme line to the utterance line as closely as possible)

  • You can use comments to discuss phonology if you think there is a predictable process going on.
  • One exception is the palatalization of 't' at morpheme boundaries. Throughout LingSync we will assume that t -> j / _-i, so it is safe to have the utterance and morpheme lines different here.

Order functional abbreviations (separated by dots) as you would say them out loud, e.g...

  • AN.PL
  • PRES.IND

The auto-glosser doesn't currently learn anything as allcaps, so it will guess an.pl and obv for morphemes that we would normally gloss AN.PL and OBV. This isn't a big problem for searchability, but it does impact how readable your glosses are, so when possible please correct it to the capitals.

Verbs...

  • if you can identify a verb's theme sign, indicate it as being VAI, VTA, VII or VTI as appropriate
  • if you cannot identify the theme sign, don't worry about it. You can include it with dots (i.e. 'cook.VTI-3'), or put it in the tags for that datum (tagged: 'VTI'), and someone can come back to it later with an analysis.
  • due to the complexity of the Mi'gmaq verb, it's a good idea to run your glosses by someone else before you put them in LingSync. We may set up a forum for that soon, stay posted!
  • to be continued

When glossing speech...

  • a' and aij are 'uh' and 'um'
  • false starts are verbatim in the utterance line, and [false.start] in the morpheme and gloss lines

[edit] Tags used

Tags should generally be not the same as glossable morphemes.

Current:

  • needs translation/needs glossing
    • use these tags if you're unsure of the translation or gloss you've used
  • preverb stacking
    • when you have more than two or three preverbs on a verb
  • SVO, OSV, SOV, etc.
    • these tags are mostly being used in the session for Mike's word order experiment. Don't feel obliged to tag the word order of every datum you input.

Proposed:

  • NPI
  • Q wh
  • Q yesno
  • modal

[edit] Abbreviations

(following Leipzig Glossing Conventions)

ABBREVIATIONterminologynotes
0third person (inanimate)
1first person
12first person inclusive ('we (me & you)')
13first person exclusive ('we (me & another)')
2second person
3third person (proximate, i.e. 's/he')
4third person (obviative, i.e. 'her/his mother'
ABSNabsentive
ADVadverb(ial)
ANanimate
ANTIPantipassive
APPLapplicative
BENbenefactive
CAUScausative
CLFclassifier
COMPcomplementizer
COMPLcompletive
CONDconditional
CONJconjunct
COPcopula
DECLdeclarative
DEMdemonstrative
DIRdirect
DISTdistal
DISTRdistributive
DUdual
EMPHemphatic
EXCLexclusive
EXT.PLextended plural(provisional term contrasting with SG, DL, PL, to mean a number equivalent of 'multitude')
FOCfocus
FUTfuture
IMPimperative
INinanimate
INCLinclusive
INDindicative
INFinfinitive
INSTinstrumental
INTintonation
IPFVimperfective
IMPSimpersonal
IRRirrealis
LOClocative
N-non-
NEGnegation, negative
NMLZnominalizer, nominalization
OBJobject
OBLoblique
OBVobviative see obviation
PARTparticle
PASSpassive
PFVperfective
PLplural
POSSpossessive
PLPpluperfect
PRFperfect
PRESpresent
PROGprogressive
PROHprohibitive
PROXproximal, proximate
PSTpast
PURPpurposive
Qquestion, question marker/particle
QUOTquotative
RECPreciprocal
REFLreflexive
RESresultative
SBJVsubjunctive
SGsingular
SUBJsubject
SUBVsubordinative
TOPtopic
VAIintransitive verb with animate subject)
VIIintransitive verb with inanimate subject)
VOCvocative
VTAtransitive verb with animate subject & animate object
VTItransitive verb with animate subject & intransitive object
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