Glosses

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There are some key differences between the Mi'gmaq Research Partnership's LingSync glossing conventions and the ones listed below. Please check out the LingSync Glosses for more details!

[edit] Format

Separate:

  • segmentable morphemes within a word with '-'
  • clitics with '='
  • multiple meta-language elements (meanings and/or abbreviations) in a single form with '.'


Gloss lexical items in 'normal font', and all else in 'CAPITALS'

  1. ms't  e'pij-ig  genn-atijig   ji'nm-ug  
    all   woman-PL  hold-3PL>4PL  man-PL    
    'all the women are holding the men'

When glossing morphemes, please use the following order:

  • verb.(mode).person

Please refer to the following default forms:

  • person: animate [AN] is assumed, only gloss inanimate [IN]
  • number: singular [SG] is the assumed, only gloss dual [DU] or plural [PL]
  • tense: present is assumed, only gloss past [PST], future [FUT], or pluperfect [PLP]
  • mode: indicative [IND] is assumed, only gloss imperative [IMP], subjunctive [SBJV] ('if...' or 'when...'), conditional [COND], subordinative [SUBV], infinitive [INF], or impersonal [IMPS]
  • order: no need to gloss this as the person agreement will provide this information (i.e. VII has one inanimate argument (i.e. 0 'it...'), VAI has one animate argument (i.e. 3 's/he...'), VTI has one animate subject and an inanimate object (i.e. 2>0 'you... it') and VTA has two animate arguments (i.e. 2>3 'you... her/him'))

NOTE: person/number agreement affixes that express both subject & object agreement, '>' should be used with the subject first and the object is second (i.e. subject>object)

[edit] Terms

(following Leipzig Glossing Conventions)

ABBREVIATIONterminologynotes
0third person (inanimate)
1first person
12first person inclusive ('we (me & you)')
13first person exclusive ('we (me & another)')
2second person
3third person (proximate, i.e. 's/he')
4third person (obviative, i.e. 'her/his mother'
ABSNabsentive
ADVadverb(ial)
ANanimate default form (assumed if animacy not indicated)
ANTIPantipassive
APPLapplicative
BENbenefactive
CAUScausative
CLFclassifier
COMPcomplementizer
COMPLcompletive
CONDconditional
CONJconjunct
COPcopula
DECLdeclarative
DEMdemonstrative
DIRdirect
DISTdistal
DISTRdistributive
DUdual
EMPHemphatic
EXCLexclusive
EXT.PLextended plural(provisional term contrasting with SG, DL, PL, to mean a number equivalent of 'multitude')
FOCfocus
FUTfuture
IMPimperative
INinanimate
INCLinclusive
INDindicative default form (assumed if mode not indicated)
INFinfinitive
INSTinstrumental
INTintonation
IPFVimperfective
IMPSimpersonal
IRRirrealis
LOClocative
N-non-
NEGnegation, negative
NMLZnominalizer, nominalization
OBJobject
OBLoblique
OBVobviative see obviation
PARTparticle
PASSpassive
PFVperfective
PLplural
POSSpossessive
PLPpluperfect
PRFperfect
PRESpresent default form (assumed if tense not indicated)
PROGprogressive
PROHprohibitive
PROXproximal, proximate default form (assumed if 3rd person not marked as obviative)
PSTpast
PURPpurposive
Qquestion, question marker/particle
QUOTquotative
RECPreciprocal
REFLreflexive
RESresultative
SBJVsubjunctive
SGsingular default form (assumed if number not indicated)
SUBJsubject
SUBVsubordinative
TOPtopic
VAIintransitive verb with animate subject)
VIIintransitive verb with inanimate subject)
VOCvocative
VTAtransitive verb with animate subject & animate object
VTItransitive verb with animate subject & intransitive object
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